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General Information


1. Hatchability is more than mere fertility. It is a combination of two factors, fertility and viability, the strength of spark of life. The first essential to maximum hatchability is the quality of egg itself. Egg quality is first determined in the flock by:-

(a) those inherited characteristics which affect hatchability
(b) nutrition and
(c) the quality of flock management and the health of the flock.

2. Initial egg quality, however essential though, is beyond our scope as manufacturers of incubators. It is equally important as to what happens to the egg between the time it is laid and the time it is placed in the incubator. If initial qualities of fertility and viability are to be preserved, then proper cooling, good sanitation, cleanliness, careful handling and storage (small end down) at correct temperature and humidity, under proper conditions, and for not over a safe length of time, are the various factors which have to be observed and followed.


1. For maximum results, it is important that proper facilities be provided both on the farm and hatchery for holding hatching eggs, under correct levels of temperature and humidity.

2. Chicken eggs should be stored between 50 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. 55 degrees F is generally considered the best. Some experimental results have indicated that 50 degrees is the best, if the eggs are to be held longer than two days and 55 degrees, if these are to be held for less than 2 days.

3. Temperature below 50 degrees and above 70 degrees is harmful. Hatchability sharply declines after holding eggs under such conditions, even for, as little periods as two or three days or even less.

4. Adequate humidity in the egg holding room is of extreme importance. 75% to 80% (i.e. 47 to 55 degrees FWB) is safe level. Too low level of humidity can contribute to the development of molds, rots and exploders.

5. If the eggs are to be held longer than a week, these should be turned daily. It may not be necessary to turn, if the eggs are to be held for less than a week.

6. With their age, the eggs loose their ability to hatch well and may even deteriorate, as no good chicks can be produced from them. It is recommended that eggs should not be held for more than 7 days in winter and 2 days in summer, prior to their being placed in the incubator. Even under the best conditions, hatchability drops rapidly, if eggs are held longer than one week.

7. In case the eggs are pre-trayed 12 to 24 hours in advance of setting the racks, holding the trays of eggs must be covered on all sides to prevent dehydration, particularly if the trayed eggs are being warmed to room temperature before setting in the machine, as some operators like to do.


1. Proper embryonic development and metabolism require the correct balance of oxygen supply, carbon dioxide removal, heat and moisture. All sides of the eggs must be exposed to uniform conditions. The essentials for good incubation, therefore, include correct levels of temperature, humidity, supply and air circulation, periodic turning and careful sanitation and fumigation.

2. Even though approximately half of all oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide elimination, animal heat production etc. occurs during the hatching period alone, the success of the hatch is not determined in the hatcher. Unless conditions of incubation have been right throughout the development of the embryo in the incubator, no hatcher can produce miracles and salvage the hatch.


3. Of all the factors of incubation, temperature is the most dramatic in terms of its affect and is the most important single factor. Improper temperature can retard or accelerate the hatch and thereby greatly affect its quality as well as percentage. Hatch in time is very important. Too much of an extreme in temperature, either above or below normal, can kill the entire hatch.


4. Humidity plays a vital role in the percentage of hatch and even more so in the quality of hatch. The combination of too high a humidity in both setter and hatcher can result in drowning the chicks in the shell. Too low humidity in incubator will result in 'dry sticks' Too high a humidity in hatcher during the first twenty-four to thirty-six hours can result in rough and unhealed navels, although this condition is more frequently due to excessive incubator temperature. Too low a humidity in the hatcher can result in chicks which pip but fail to get out of the shell.

Air Circulation

5. Proper circulation of air is the key to control temperature and humidity. It is essential that the three factors of temperature, humidity and air circulation be properly co-related for supply of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide.

6. An egg which is both fertile and high in viability will hatch even in the face of astonishing abuse. An egg which although fertile, is low in viability, will hatch only if all the conditions are favorable. The greatest source for success or failure in incubation are the eggs which are marginal in viability. Such eggs will hatch if everything along the line is 100%.

7. It is not easy to remember as to what was done to the incubtion three weeks before. Careful record is therefore, essential to obtain maximum results. The method by which eggs were handled, conditions of temperature, humidity and ventilator settings used throughout the incubation period, should be recorded. Then you are in a position to analyze your results in an attempt to determine what might have been the cause of any deficiency in your hatch. To improve your hatchability, carry out a careful post mortem of the eggs which fail to hatch. Such post morterns require time, but they will pay handsome dividends. Through an analysis of your records and of all the factors of the incubation, you will be able to correct your procedures so as to prevent recurrences of any condition which caused trouble.

8. It is advisable to maintain accurate record of the following data in respect of the incubation:-
(a) Temperature reading-morning and evening.
(b) Humidity once a day.
(c) Method of ventilations, positions of rota-vent openings.
(d) Position of eggs set.
(e) Number of eggs set.
(f) Number of infertile eggs.
(g) Number of dead germs,
(h) Number of chicks hatched.
(i) Number of deformed/crippled chicks.


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